Smart Card Frequently Asked Questions

Theses are some of the frequently asked questions about smart cards and related technologies and standards:

Identical in size and feel to credit cards, buy viagra smart cards store information on an integrated microprocessor chip located within the body of the card.

These chips hold a variety of information, buy cialis from stored (monetary)-value used for retail and vending machines, advice to secure information and applications for higher-end operations such as medical/healthcare records. New information and/or applications can be added depending on the chip capabilities.

Different types of cards being used today include contact, contactless and combination cards.

Contact smart cards must be inserted into a smart card reader. These cards have a contact plate on the face which makes an electrical connector for reads and writes to and from the chip when inserted into the reader.

Contactless smart cards have an antenna coil, as well as a chip embedded within the card. The internal antenna allows for communication and power with a receiving antenna at the transaction point to transfer information. Close proximity is required for such transactions, which can decrease transaction time while increasing convenience.

A combination card functions as both a contact and contactless smart card.

Yes, click smart cards can be categorized by technology and by capability. In the technology category, cialis sale there are two types: (a) contact smart cards, ask with contacts to the semiconductor chip on the surface of the card in compliance with ISO Standard 7816, and (b) contactless smart cards, with no contacts on the surface of the card; connection with the semiconductor is done by means of radio frequency transmission through the surface of the card.

In the capability category, there are three levels: (a) the memory card, which will store and retrieve serial “streams” of data that are sent to or received from the semiconductor chip; (b) the protected memory card, which requires a secret code or “PIN” number to be entered before the serial stream of data can be sent to or received from the semiconductor chip; and (c) the microprocessor card, which contains a microprocessor semiconductor chip; this chip can contain microcode that defines a command structure, a data file structure, and a security structure in the card.

Smart cards contain unique features that bring many benefits to both consumers and issuing organizations:

1. Security Benefits

  • chip is tamper-resistant
  • information stored on the card can be PIN code and/or read-write protected
  • capable of performing encryption
  • each smart card has its own, search unique serial number

2. Intelligence

  • capable of processing, check not just storing information
  • Smart cards can communicate with computing devices through a smart card reader
  • information and applications on a card can be updated without having to issue new cards

3. Convenience

  • chip is tamper-resistant
  • Smart cards provide a portable, easy to use form factor that many are familiar with using

The primary use of the IC card is for the portable storage and retrieval of data. Hence the fundamental component of the IC is a memory module. The following list represents the more commonly used memory types:

  • ROM Read only memory (mask ROM)
  • PROM Programmable read only memory
  • EPROM Erasable programmable ROM
  • EEPROM Electrically erasable PROM
  • RAM Random access memory

A particular chip may have one or more of these memory types. These memory types have particular characteristics that control their method of use.

In contactless smart cards all the communication and usually also the power for the smart card is transferred wirelessly using RF signals and/or inductive coupling methods. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems use radio frequency to identify, cialis prostate locate and track people, viagra assets, and animals. Charles Walton pioneered the RFID technology in the 1970s and 1980s. Passive RFID systems are composed of three components: an interrogator (reader), a passive tag, and a host computer. The tag is composed of an antenna coil and a silicon chip that includes basic modulation circuitry and non-volatile memory. The tag is energized by a time-varying electromagnetic radio frequency (RF) wave that is transmitted by the reader. This RF signal is called a carrier signal. When the RF field passes through an antenna coil, there is an AC voltage generated across the coil. This voltage is rectified to supply power to the tag. The information stored in the tag is transmitted back to the reader.

Typical RFID system use inductive coupling between the card and the reader. Both of them have coils which interact with each other (magnetic coupling). This interaction makes it possible to transfer power to the card and transfer information. ISO frequencies of 125 kHz and 13.56 MHz are generally used, and utilize transformer-type electromagnetic coupling. The typical operating distance is usually few centimeter or tens of centimeters.

Sometimes higher frequencies are used for RFID tagging, but the communication methods are somewhat different. 2.45 GHz, for example, uses a true RF link. There are also systems that operate at UHF frequencies (902-928 MHz in USA and 866-868 MHz in Europe). The radio systems can operate typically from few meters to 10 meters. There is only one transmitter: the passive tag is not a transmitter or transponder in the purest definition of the term, yet bidirectional communication is taking place. The RF field generated by a tag reader (the energy transmitter) has three purposes:

  1. Induce enough power into the tag coil to energize the tag
  2. Provide a synchronized clock source to the tag
  3. Act as a carrier for return data from the tag

The list of potential applications for smart card technology would be too long for this introduction. Instead, stuff listed below are some of the major applications seen around the world.

There are over 300, check 000,000 GSM mobile telephones with smart cards which contain the mobile phone security and subscription information. The handset is personalized to the individual by inserting the card which contains its phone number on the network, billing information, and frequently call numbers.

Almost every small dish TV satellite receiver uses a smart card as its removable security element and subscription information. There are over 12 million in the US alone between DirectTV, USSB and EchoStar (DishNetwork). There are tens of millions more in Europe and Asia.

The Financial industry has been quick to adopt smart card technology in various countries around the world. Every French Visa Debit card (over 25,000,000) has a chip in it. In Germany, about 40,000,000 banking cards have been issued. EuroPay, MasterCard, and Visa all have smart card programs for their bank members. In the Portugal and Singapore, the national banking networks have launched electronic purse projects. Proton has worked with its banking partners to issued over 25,000,000 electronic purse cards in several countries.

Various countries with national health care programs have deployed smart card systems. The largest is the German solution which deployed over 80,000,000 cards to every person in Germany and Austria.

There are over 100 countries world wide who have reduced or eliminated coins from the pay phone system by issuing smart cards. Germany, France, UK, Brazil, Mexico, and China all have major programs.

Other applications for smart cards include computer/internet user authentication and non-repudiation, retailer loyalty programs, physical access, resort cards, mass transit, electronic toll, product tracking, national ID, drivers license, passports, and the list goes on.

ISO 7816 defines Integrated Circuit Cards with Electrical Contact The International Standards Organization (ISO) facilitates the creation of voluntary standards through a consensus-building process that is open to interested participants. ISO 7816 is the international standard for integrated-circuit cards (commonly known as smart cards) that use electrical contacts. ISO 7816 does not address smart card applications. Most current and planned applications require custom files and coding. However, viagra 40mg check there are efforts under way to create common application standards. ISO has six parts. Some have been complete; others are currently in draft stages. See smart card standards.

The Application Programming Interface (API) for the Java Card technology defines the calling conventions by which an applet accesses the Java Card Runtime Environment and native services. The Java Card API allows applications written for one Java Card-enabled platform to run on any other Java Card-enabled platform.

The Java Card API is compatible with formal international standards, doctor such as, ISO7816, and industry-specific standards, such as, Europay/Master Card/Visa (EMV).

The Common Access Card (CAC) is the title of the new smart identification and benefits card being issued throughout the DoD. It is the new standard ID card for active duty members of the Uniformed Services, order purchase Selected Reserve, ailment patient DoD civilian employees, thumb and eligible contractor personnel. The CAC will also be the principal card used to enable physical access to buildings and controlled spaces and for logical access to computer networks and systems. The CAC platform will contain the mandatory identification, physical and logical access capabilities, Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) authentication, encryption, digital signing certificates, and may also contain Department-wide and/or Component-specific applications such as manifesting, deployment readiness, food service, and medical/dental.

At a minimum, the CAC will be the standard ID card for eligible members of the Uniformed Services, DoD civilian and eligible foreign national employees, and eligible contractor personnel. It will be the principal card used to enable physical access to buildings and controlled spaces, will facilitate a standardized, uniform approach to access DoD facilities and DoD computer systems; and will carry public key infrastructure (PKI) identity, email, and encryption certificates.

‘Personalization’ is a general term used to describe the process of printing (or embossing) data on the surface of the card, buy viagra encoding the magnetic stripe on the card, ailment and programming data into the smart card chip. A more exact definition of personalization is doing the processes described above (printing, encoding, programming) to a card with data specific to an individual cardholder.

‘Initialization’ is a term used primarily to describe the process of programming the smart card chip with data that is the same for a batch of cards. An example of initialized data would be a file structure and secure key information for a specific application. The initialization process could also include the printing of information, such as a logo, that is common to all the cards in that batch.

The many cases, the initialization process and the personalization process are done together when the smart card is being issued.

The PC/SC Workgroup was formed in May 1997. It was created to address critical technical issues related to the integration of smart cards with the PC. PC/SC Workgroup members include Bull Personal Transaction Systems, patient Gemplus, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Microsoft Corp., Schlumberger, Siemens-Nixdorf Inc., Sun Microsystems, Toshiba Corp., and VeriFone. The specification addresses limitations in existing standards that complicate integration of ICC devices with the PC and fail to adequately address interoperability, from a PC application perspective, between products from multiple vendors. It provides standardize interfaces to Interface Devices (IFDs) and the specification of common PC programming interfaces and control mechanisms. Version 1.0 was released in December of 1997.

OpenCard is a standard framework announced by International Business Machines Corporation, prostate Inc., cheap Netscape, NCI, and Sun Microsystems Inc. that provides for interoperable smart card solutions across many hardware and software platforms. The OpenCard Framework is an open standard providing an architecture and a set of APIs that enable application developers and service providers to build and deploy smart card aware solutions in any OpenCard-compliant environment. It was first announced March, 1997.

Radio frequency identification, buy see or RFID, order ambulance is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, site but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna (the chip and the antenna together are called an RFID transponder or an RFID tag). The antenna enables the chip to transmit the identification information to a reader. The reader converts the radio waves reflected back from the RFID tag into digital information that can then be passed on to computers that can make use of it.

No, viagra the chips are not magnetically encoded. Running a magnet over the chip or using a tape eraser will not affect the chip.

It is a form of RFID tag. A smart label consists of an adhesive label that is embedded with an ultra-thin RFID tag “inlay” which is encoded and then printed. The labels are called “smart” because of the flexible capabilities provided by the silicon chip embedded in the tag inlay.

RFID uses the low-end of the electromagnetic spectrum. The waves coming from readers are no more dangerous than the waves coming to your car radio.

Just as your radio tunes in to different frequency to hear different channels, prescription RFID tags and readers have to be tuned to the same frequency to communicate. RFID systems use many different frequencies, ambulance but generally the most common are low- (around 125 KHz), high- (13.56 MHz) and ultra-high frequency, or UHF (850-900 MHz). Microwave (2.45 GHz) is also used in some applications. Radio waves behave differently at different frequency, so you have to choose the right frequency for the right application.

Our sister company, physician InstantCard, pharm provides an excellent, decease low-cost card personalization service. They are able to custom-print photo ID cards on-demand, using any kind of smart card technology, and guarantee same-day service. This is an especially effective solution for companies which have a large number of small-to-medium sites.